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Differences between China and the United States in the flamm

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Differences between China and the United States in the flamm

Author: Date :2021-03-24 Views: order
In daily life, fires caused by textile fires account for a large proportion. In recent years, with the development of urban modernization, high-rise residential buildings and hotels have put forward higher requirements on the combustion performance of interior decoration textiles. Therefore, strengthening the combustion safety performance index assessment of clothing and decorative textiles is extremely important to ensure the safety of consumers' personal and property and reduce the loss caused by fire. Next, QINSUN will explain the differences between China and the United States in the combustion performance standards of textiles.
 
   The United States is the world's largest textile importer, and its per capita consumption ranks first in the world. More than 90% of my country's exports to North America are the United States. However, China standards and technical regulations are different from those of the United States. The following takes the US technical regulations and standards as an example to analyze the differences with China relevant standards.
 
  The measures taken are different from the punishment for non-conforming products
 
   The United States enacted the Flammable Fabric Act and its implementing regulations in 1953. Specific regulations have been made on the combustion properties of products directly sold to consumers, such as textiles, children’s pajamas, carpets and mattresses. Recall and fines are imposed on substandard products. However, China has no provisions on penalties for burning unqualified textiles.
 
  Different assessment items and judgment standards
 
   clothing textiles
 
The United States CPSC 16 CFR1610 Federal Technical Regulations "Combustibility Standards for Textiles for Clothing" divides the combustibility into level 1 (acceptable for normal combustion), level 2 (medium flammability and caution), and level 3 (fast and severe burning is unacceptable and not suitable Used in clothing). 16 CFR 1615/1616 "Children's Pajamas Flammability Standard" requires that the average carbonization length of the five 8.9 cm×25.4 cm samples tested is not more than 17.8 cm or the entire combustion does not have a carbonization length of 25.4 cm.
 
   China GB 8965.1-2008 "Fire-retardant protection of protective clothing Part 1 Flame-retardant clothing" standard stipulates that the fabric assessment items are thermal protection coefficient, damage length, smoldering time, continuous burning time, whether melting and dripping are allowed. The judging standards are divided into three grades: A, B, and C, and meet the requirements of B1 level specified in GB 17591; if they are unqualified, double re-inspection is required. If they are still unqualified, this batch of fabrics shall be discontinued.
 
   GB/T 17591-2006 "Flame Retardant Fabrics" stipulates the burning performance of flame-retardant protective clothing fabrics (before and after washing). The assessment items are: damage length, smoldering time, continued burning time, whether there is melting or dripping; the judging standard is: both before and after washing meet the B1 level requirements, and the indicators in all directions meet the B1 level requirements. Level B1; one item that does not reach level B1 but reaches level B2 is considered to be B2 level. Those that do not meet the requirements of Class B2 shall not be used as flame-retardant products. Those that have not reached the B2 level after the washing resistance test shall not be used as washing-resistant flame-retardant products. If the combustion performance of all samples is qualified or the number of failures does not exceed the standard acceptance number, the batch of products is qualified. If the number of non-conforming samples reaches the rejection number, the batch of products is not qualified for combustion performance.
 
   GB/T 21295-2007 "Technical requirements for physical and chemical properties of clothing" stipulates the combustion performance of finished products with delayed combustion requirements. Under the specified test conditions, the damage status of the fabric after burning, or the flame burning ability is measured. The assessment items are: damage length and flame spread time. Judging criteria are: the damaged length of infant clothing>17.8 cm; adult clothing: the flame spread time is not lint ≥3.5 s, and the lint ≥7 s.
 
  Decorative textiles
 
The assessment items and evaluation criteria of 16 CFR 1630 "Surface Burning Performance Standard for Carpet Products" are: if a single sample burns or smoldering does not reach within 2.54 cm from the edge of the aperture, it will be judged as qualified; if there are 7 of the 8 samples If one or more are qualified, the product is determined to be qualified.
 
16 CFR 1631 "Surface Flammability Performance Standard for Small Carpet Products" The assessment items and evaluation standards are: if a single sample burns or smoldering does not reach within 2.54cm from the edge of the aperture, it will be judged as qualified; if 7 out of 8 samples If one or more are qualified, the product is determined to be qualified. If the small blanket does not meet the requirements, but has been imported into the United States, it must be stated on the label "flammable (does not meet the US Department of Commerce standard FF2-70: Do not use near the source of fire).
 
16 CFR 1632 "Standard for Flammability of Mattresses and Mattresses (Open Flame Test)" The assessment items and evaluation standards are: 3 special cigarettes burn on the surface of each type of mattress, and the closest point to the cigarette in any direction on the surface of the mattress is required The carbonization length does not exceed 5.1 cm.
 
16 CFR 1633 "Mattress and Mattress Flammability Standard" assessment items and evaluation standards are: the peak heat release value of the tested mattress shall not exceed 200kW during the 30min test; the total heat release value of the 10min before the test shall not exceed 15MJ; The manufacturer must test at least three samples in accordance with the prescribed method. If one sample fails to meet the above two requirements, it is judged as unqualified.
 
   GB 8624-1997 "Combustion performance classification of building materials" assesses the burning performance of curtain textile materials including oxygen index, damage length, continued burning time, and smoldering time. It is judged that the flame-retardant materials reach the B1 index; the combustible materials reach the B2 index.
 
   GB/T 17591-2006 "Flame Retardant Woven Fabrics" are classified according to product categories. The assessment items for decorative fabrics (curtains, curtains, sofa covers, bedspreads) are: damage length, continued burning time, smoldering time. The assessment items for aircraft and ships in vehicle interiors are: damage length, continued burning time, burning drips; the assessment indicators for fabrics used in automobile interiors are; flame spread rate; the assessment items for fabrics used for train interiors are: damage area , Damage length, continuous burning time, smoldering time, flame receiving time. Judgment criteria are as follows: All indicators meet the requirements of B1 level as B1 level; if there is one item that does not reach B1 level but reaches B2 level, it is B2 level. Those that do not meet the requirements of Class B2 shall not be used as flame-retardant products. Those that have not reached the B2 level after the washing resistance test shall not be used as washing-resistant flame-retardant products. If the combustion performance of all samples is qualified or the number of failures does not exceed the standard acceptance number, the batch of products is qualified. If the number of non-conforming samples reaches the rejection number, the batch of products is not qualified for combustion performance.
 
GB 20286-2006 "Fire-retardant products and components in public places, burning performance requirements and markings" for the fire-retardant fabrics in public places, the assessment items of the combustion performance of the oxygen index, damage length, continued burning time, smoldering time, burning droplets Causes absorbent cotton to burn or smolder. It is judged that the flame-retardant grade 1 fabric and the flame-retardant grade 2 fabric meet the required assessment indexes. The GB 24407—2012 "Safety Technical Conditions for Special School Buses" standard stipulates the combustion performance of interior textile materials. The assessment item is oxygen index, and the judgment standard is: the oxygen index of textile interior materials LO≥22%.
 
The assessment items of GB 50222 "Code for Fire Protection Design of Interior Decoration of Buildings" are damage length, continued burning time, and smoldering time; the judgment standard is: the decorative fabrics in underground civil buildings must meet the B1 requirements; the residential and hotel in high-rise civil buildings Bed covers must meet B1 requirements; curtains, curtains and furniture coverings must also meet B1 or B2 requirements depending on the building and location.
 
  The test principle (method) is different
 
   clothing textiles
 
  ①45° method
 
The American standard CPSC 16 CFR 1610 adopts the test principle of the "45° Method for Testing the Flammability of Textiles Used in Clothing" and the Chinese standard GB/T 14644 "Determination of the Burning Rate of Textile Fabrics in the 45° Direction": Under the specified conditions, the test The sample is placed at an angle of 45°, and the sample is ignited for 1 second. The time required for the flame to spread to a certain distance is recorded to classify the flammability level of the clothing fabric. The specific indicators of the American standard are shown in Table 1.
 
   The national standard GB/T 14644 has no exemption conditions. The test method is the same. The standard for assessing the level 1 of suede fabric is that the flame spread time is ≥7.0s, and the rest is the same as 16 CFR 1610.
 
  ②Vertical method
 
American 16 CRF 1615 (0~6 years old)/1616 (7~14 years old) "Standard for the Flammability of Children's Pajamas"; my country's GB/T 5455 flame-retardant woven fabrics, knitted fabrics, coated products, and laminated products test principles : Put a certain size of the sample on the specified sample rack for drying and cooling, then place it under the specified burner, ignite the sample with a standard flame for the specified time, and record its continued burning time, smoldering time and Measure the length of the damage. .
 
  Decorative textiles
 
  ①Horizontal method
 
   The test method of 16 CFR 1630 "Surface Burning Performance Standard of Carpet Products" is: № 1588 Hexamethyltetramine Tablet Combustion Method.
 
   16 CFR 1631 "Surface Burning Performance Standard for Small Carpet Products" (carpets with a one-way area not greater than 1.83m2 and a surface area not greater than 2.23m2). The test method is the same as 16 CFR 1630. The test method for 16 CFR 1632 "Mattress and Mattress Flammability Standard (Open Flame Test)" is the cigarette method, including bare mattress test and bed sheet coverage test (supported by pins).
 
   16 CFR 1633 "Mattress and Bedding Flammability Standard" test methods are open flame method and burner burning test. GB/T 11049—2008 Test Principle: Under the specified test conditions, expose the horizontally placed sample to the action of a small fire source, namely the flat tablet beside hexamethyltetramine, and measure the length and length of damage after the test. The spread time of the flame. Record the maximum damage length of each sample.
 
GB/T 20390.1-2006 "Combustion performance of bedding products-Part 1: Test method for ignitability of cigarettes as ignition source" and GB/T 20390.2-2006 "Combustion performance of bedding products-Part 2 Test method for ignitability using small flame as ignition source" 》Test principle: Place the sample on the test substrate, place a smoking cigarette on the upper or lower part of the sample, and record the progressive fuming or flaming that occurs. The test result is ignited or unignited; If it is ignition, record the type of ignition (progressive smoke combustion or flaming combustion), test termination time and reason.
 
   FZ/T 01028-1993 "Textile Fabric Burning Performance Determination Horizontal Method" Test Principle: Under the specified test conditions, ignite a horizontal sample for 15 seconds to determine the distance of flame spreading on the sample and the time it takes to spread this distance. The three marking lines are 38mm, 138mm, and 292mm respectively, and record the maximum and average flame spread rate when the sample is burning. In this way, the combustion grade of the sample is evaluated.
 
  ②Oxygen index method
 
GB/T 5454-1997 "Textile Burning Performance Test Oxygen Index Method" test principle: the sample is perpendicular to the combustion cylinder, and the upper end of the sample is ignited in the upward flow of oxygen and nitrogen, and the combustion characteristics are observed, and the specified limit The oxygen index compares the continuous combustion time or the length of damage. Through a series of samples in different oxygen concentrations, the minimum oxygen concentration required to maintain combustion is measured. Among the tested samples, 40% to 60% exceed the specified value. The continuous burning and smoldering time or the length of damage.
 
   different labels
 
   The United States regulates the burning performance label of textiles in laws and regulations, and has corresponding symbols or texts. Such as: children’s pajamas flammability standard 16 CFR 1615/1616 labeling requirements: product labels and packaging labels; carpet and felt surface flammability standard 16 CFR 1630 labeling requirements: if the carpet or its fibers are flame-retardant finishing, the letters should be marked : "T"; the surface flammability standard for carpets and carpets 16 CFR 1631 label requirements: small carpets imported into the United States, if they do not meet the requirements, must write on the label "flammable (do not meet the US Department of Commerce standard FF2- 70: Do not use near the fire source)".
 
Mattress flammability standard 16 CFR 1632 label requirements: flame retardant treatment requirements: all mattresses treated with chemical flame retardants should be marked with "T" on the label; warning label: all beds treated with chemical flame retardants The mattress should be attached with a precautionary label to prevent the flame retardancy of the mattress from being damaged by certain agents or treatments; the label must be affixed to the mattress and kept until the mattress is sold or delivered to the end consumer; the bed During the entire commercial circulation process of the mat from the manufacturer to the consumer, the warnings on the label are always durable, prominent and eye-catching.
 
Mattress flammability standard (open flame) 16 CFR 1633 documents and labels have requirements: all manufacturers that manufacture, import and sell mattresses in the United States must use documents and labels to prove that the product meets or exceeds the standard requirements; the product is required to be attached Permanent label: manufacturer name, address; product model, production date; certificate of conformity.
 
   my country’s textile labels generally include fiber content labels and product instructions labels. The label of instructions for use is marked in accordance with GB 5296.4; the tolerance of fiber content is marked by FZ/T 01053 "Identification of Textile Fiber Content". Such as:
 
  GB 8965.1-2009 standard stipulates: the mark should conform to the relevant regulations of GB 5296.4;
 
   GB/T 17591-2006 standard stipulates: The mark indicates the product combustion level, such as flame retardant fabric B1 level (flame retardant protective clothing, washable 20 times), etc.;
 
The GB 20286-2006 standard stipulates that the flame retardant performance level of flame retardant products and components in public places should be marked on the product or product packaging in an appropriate way, and the flame retardant performance level of flame retardant products and components used in public places must be clearly indicated, such as Flame retardant level 1 (the fabric is not washable or washable 30 times);
 
   In addition to the flame retardant grade, the flame retardant performance label shall also include the uniquely identifiable number, the standard, the name of the organization that conducts the inspection, etc.
 
  The content of the flame retardant performance label of the product shall be consistent with the inspection result of the product.
 
If the structure and composition of flame-retardant products and components change significantly or the validity period of the report is exceeded, re-sampling should be sent to a nationally recognized and authorized inspection agency for inspection to confirm whether it can continue to use the corresponding flame-retardant performance level mark .

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